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Special Double Issue 



O Computer 

The Boston 

The Bo5ton Kaypro Ibett' Group 

Vol.2 No.1 

Foil 1Q84 

^Director's Pfote 

by Lee Lockwood 


We are going ahead with starting a BOSKUG 
RCPM and have purchased a 10 from Kaypro which 
should be arriving shortly. To assist Pat Withen 
(our SYSOP- to-be ), we have formed a little task 
force consisting of Mike Bate, Mike Bartell, Jay 
Sage and myself, who will be designing the board 
^^^nd figuring out what software to run it on. 

There will likely be a period of a few weeks 1 
beta-testing before we're ready to go public. Our 
target date at the moment is December 1st. 

If you have some knowledge and/or lore about 
running an RCPM, or if you simply would like to 
work on the project, call Lee at 965-6343. Ditto 
for any suggestions of what you'd like to see on 


By now, you should have received a Western 
Union care package with your very own E-mail box, 
manuals, and other like matter. One of the offers 
included in the package is for Hayes modems at 
about 40% off list price. This is a great chance 
to buy a modem to use on our BB. Another offer is 
for Radio Shack Model 100 computers at a similarly 
large discount . ~ 

Note that both these offers, originally due to 
expire on October 30th, have been extended 
through November 30th. (Western Union was slow 
with its mailings . ) 

As for EZ-Link and FYI, the two Western Union 
services being made available, I leave it to you to 
tell us what you think of them. Personally, I 
have found the log-on procedures' cumbersome and 
antiquated, especially when compared with other 
^competing services. 

However, every BCS member gets it for free 
and gets to use E-mail and other services at a 
fraction of the retail cost. I recommend you make 
the effort and try it out before you turn up your 

nose at this pretty good deal. (People who send 
or receive Telex make out even better.) It's an 
excellent chance to learn about this type of 
communication, which will likely become 
commonplace in the future, at a low cost. 



If you want to send messages on Easylink to me 
(or to any other BOSKUG officer), use BOSKUG 's 
own E-Mail box, not my personal one. The box 
number is: 62795113. 

Start your message with the name of the person 
to whom it is sent: e.g., "SHENOY. Hello, 
Suresh..." etc., etc.. That way, each officer 
can scan the mail before reading it and read only 
those addressed to him. (On Easy Link, once 
you've read a message it is deleted from the 

A general tip on sending messages: It's much 
faster & less costly to write the letter first and 
save it to disk, then upload it to the recipient's 
box. Follow the instructions in the manual about 
sending "batch", mail (even if it's only one 
letter). If you're using MDM740 or some other 
Modem7 public domain software, you'll have to do 
two things you're probably not used to doing: 

1) At the COMMAND prompt, type TLF ('toggle 
line feed"). This will make sure that the 
computer sends a line feed at the end of each line 
— which Perfect Writer doesn't do and which 
EasyLink requires, 

2) To upload the file, instead of using the 
(S)end mode, go into Terminal mode and type 
CTRL-T, the command for informal file transfer. 
The program will ask you for the filename and 
location, then will ask if you want time delays. 
Answer No and hit <CR>. The file will whizz away. 

One other tip. You can save time by 
immediately typing the mailbox number at the PTS 
prompt, then going into the transfer routine 
described above without waiting for any message 
from EasyLink. 

Let us know about your experiences with this 
and with the FYI service for BCS members as well. 

(Continued an p. 21) 

Fall 1984 

The Boston Kugel 




Director ' s Note 1 


State of the Library Report 3 

Software Evaluation Project 3 


New Life for Old Kaypro lis 4 

Kaypro 4 Plus 88 5 


Tips for Beginners 6 

The Backgrounder 7 

DUU Part Two 8 


Typing Tutorials 9 

Members ' Corner 10 


Get It Write 12 

A Matter of Style 13 

Spell 14 

Typwtr 15 

NewWord 16 


Grafiks 2.4 18 


Save on Long-Distance Phoning 20 

Carrying Your Computer Overseas? 20 

Letters 22 

User's Corner 22 

BOSKUG Meeting Schedule 24 

BOSKUG Phone Directory 24 


A Boston Computer Society Publication 

Vol. 2 No. 1 Fall 1984 

EDITOR: Karen Rockow (354-0124) 

ADVERTISING: Dave Hoag (H 533-6353, W 258-1612) 

BOOKS: Peter Bates 

CIRCULATION: Diane Bushee 

ARM-TWISTING: Lee Lockwood 

CONTRIBUTORS: Cast of Thousands 

THE BOSTON KUGEL is published bimonthly by The 
Boston Kaypro Users Group (BOSKUG) of the Boston 
Computer Society .©1984 by BOSKUG. All rights 


BOSKUG is the official Kaypro Users Group of the Boston Computer 


BOSKUG is dedicated to the exchange of information and to helping Kaypro 
o<"r<»rs solve problems they .may have with their machines, its software, or 
peripherals. BOSKUG meets semi-monthly on the 2nd and 4th Tuesdays. 
Programs include lectures, panels, and hands-on workshops on software 
available for the Kaypro. Meeting notices are carried in the BCS monthly 
CALENDAR and in its bimonthly magazine, UPDATE . 

To join BOSKUG, write the Boston Computer Society at 1 Center Plaza, 
Boston, MA 02108, or call (617) 367-8080. If you live more than 75 miles 
away and wish merely to subscribe to The Kugel , send $10 for a year's 
subscription to BOSKUG, 27 Howland Rd., W. Newton, MA 02165. 

Jrom the editor... 

Welcome to the Fall issue. We hope its size will 
compensate in part for the delay. You will find a 
great deal of information here. We have tried *^\ 
make it more readable and visually appealing. 


In future issues, we'll be bringing you more on 
dBase II and Micropro software (while continuing 
to cover the Perfect package). For next issue, 
Bob Harlow takes a further look at T/Maker and we 
plan round-up reviews of books on WordStar and 
CP/M. Bette Feinstein will be inaugurating a new 
column about how BOSKUG members use their 
Kaypros. We'll be re-printing more articles and 
hints from other KUG newsletters. The Software 
Evaluation Project will be contributing more 
reviews. We've asked Nat Weiner to comment on 
the Kaypro annual report and the antics at Solana 
Beach. Finally, we hope to hear more from you, 
the reader, in our letter column and new question 
and answer section. We've even started a new 
forum, "Members' Corner," for your personal 


We need writers, reviewers, layer-outers and 
paster-uppers. We need people to sell ads and 
keyboarders to cull articles from other 
newsletters and enter them on disk. Anyone who 
can contribute graphics or even print-outs 
designs using the new TLC Logo will be welcon. 
with open arms. We are looking for someone to 
write up brief reports of meetings and we need 
someone to conduct the new question and answer 
column (no expertise necessary). Sarah Wernick 
tells us that she has graduated from the novice 
category, so we need someone to take over the 
"Tips for Beginners" column. We even need a 
carpenter to knock together a few pieces of wood 
for a frame of a small light box. But most of all, 
we need dBasell and Micropro software users to 
come out of the woodwork and share their 
knowledge. The Kugel is your newsletter; we want 
to hear from all of you. You needn't be a Pulitzer 
prize-winning author to write for us. 


All articles and reviews should be submitted in 
single-sided (Kaypro II) form on disk and hard 

(Continued en p. 24) 







Business Card 
1/4 Page 
1/2 Page 

Full Page 

3.5 x 1.75 
3.5 x 5 
7.5 x 5 or 
3.5 x 10 
7.5 x 10 






Deadline for 
Karen Rockow, 


Jan. issue 
Harvard St 

is Dec. 15. Send camera-ready copy to: 
. #3B, Cambridge, MA 02138. Checks should 

be payable to: 

The Boston Computer Society. 


Boston Kugel 




— State of the Library Report 

by Charlie Bowen 
BOSKUG Software Librarian 


I won't have room to mention everything that's 
been added to the library since the last number, 
especially with so many other things to tell you 
about, but here are some highlights: 

There are new versions of Newsweep (NSWP), 
FIND, FINDBAD, SD and other popular favorites on 
Disk U2. The same disk also contains screen-dump 
programs for all models of Kaypro that will let 
you print whatever is on your console screen at a 
given moment. 

A disk full of word-processing utilities 
(BOSKUG. 133) offers SWAPS AVE, a program to put 
the contents of a Perfect Writer swap file into an 
editable file on disk, so that you can recover lost 
text. There are also a variety of filter programs 
that make it easy to move text back and forth 
from Perfect Writer to WordStar or the other way 

Mike Bate fixed up a disk full of 
^assembly-language utilities (BOSKUG. 121) , 

^ncluding assemblers, disassemblers, source-code 
translators, and so on. This is principally for 
hard-core programmers, though the program 
UNL0AD.COM, which takes a machine-language file 
and turns it into a hex file, might be useful to 
anyone who wants to transfer a program from one 
computer to another in an environment that 
doesn't permit the passing of binary files. 

Mike Barteli, a new member of BOSKUG, has 
contributed two disks (BOSKUG. 308 and 309) of 
poster files ready to be printed out. Portraits of 
such luminaries as Lincoln, Beethoven, W. C. 
Fields, and Captain Kirk. Also a variety of 
wildlife, including tigers, (pink) panthers, 
dragons, and the Morton's Salt Girl. And don't 
miss the mural-sized Starship Enterprise ! 


I'm especially grateful to these members for 
bringing in finished disks ready to be put into 
circulation, for, as I've announced at a couple of 
recent meetings, I no longer have time to spend 
putting disks in shape for the library. (Just 
copying them, putting the labels on, and updating 
the catalogue takes more time than I can spare 
right now.) If there are other generous and 
knowledgeable souls out there who'd like to put 
together a disk for the library, including some 
~Aind of reasonable docs that will give people an 
idea what the programs do and how to use them, 
you'd be doing the library and BOSKUG a big 
favor . 


In order to meet incidental expenses, we've 
had to raise the amount we ask members to 
contribute in exchange for copying disks. The 
first disk you copy, as in the past, will cost you 
one blank disk (unformatted, preferably) or 
$3.00. After that, the rest of the disks you copy 
at that meeting, instead of being free as before, 
will cost you one dollar each. 


Did you know that S, the directory program we 
put on practically all the library disks, is capable 
of doing quite a lot more than just listing the 
directory to your screen? This program's real 
name is not S, but INDEX, as you can see if you 

(Continued on p. 11) 


A Progress Report 

by Bob Harlow 

The Software Evaluation Project has been a bit 
slow this summer, but is getting back into gear. 
At the September meeting, we passed out 6 
packages for evaluation. Here is how it works: 

To request a product that you have heard 
about, you may call, write, or see me at a 

Bob Harlow 
63 Avon St. 
Somerville MA 02143 

I then write on the BOSKUG letterhead to the 
firm and try to get a review copy. It is very 
helpful if you provide this information: 

Name of the Product 
Manufacturer's Address and Phone # 

When the product arrives, I log it in, back it 
up, and give the diskettes and the manuals to Bill 
Ansley. Bill will coordinate with the reviewer. 
Reviewer requirements are as follows: 

1. Review programs promptly or return them 
uncopied to Bill for re-assignment if you are not 
going to be able to evaluate them. 

2. If you can review them, try to do so within 
a month or so, and write them up for the KOGEL. 

3. Return two hard copies of your review and 
one diskette copies to Bill. The article should be 
unformatted, so Karen Rockow can work it into the 
newsletter format. The diskette itself should be 
in the Kaypro II format, because that is what 

Karen has. 

4. The software is not to be copied by anyone 

but the reviewer. 

Fall 1984 

The Boston Kugel 


by Michael S . Drooker 

At the 25 September BOSKUG meeting, a new 
Special Interest Group (SIG) called the "PRO-8 
ROM SIG" was formed. Members of this SIG have in 
common a general interest in modifying their 
KAYPRO hardware , and a specific interest in using 
the mo dific ation methods and components produced 
by Micro Cornucopia of Bend, Oregon. 

I hope this article wiH help you to decide if 
you are interested in such modifications. It may 
help you decide to attempt to modify your own 
machine yourself. Suffice to say, it can be done, 
and this report is being written on an "old" 
KAYPRO II which is now converted to be a 
functional KAYPRO 4, i.e., running two 
double-sided, double density disk drives. This is 
only the beginning of the story, because this 
machine now has some added, untapped capabilities 
which will be the subject of a later report. 

Converting a KAYPRO II to a KAYPRO 4 

This information applies to KAYPRO lis which 
were produced before KAYPRO Corp. shifted 
production to installing ••universal" (KAYPRO 10) 
boards in all their machines. Before that time, 
there were several different board configurations 
installed in KAYPRO lis. Some of these were 
KAYPRO 4 boards. So the first question to ask is: 
Do I have a KAYPRO 4 sleeping inside my KAYPRO 


Get out the Phillips head screwdrivers, shut 
down and unplug your machine (and attached 
peripherals) and dig in. If your system has a 2732 
monitor ROM (24 pin U47) and the smaller ICs are 
soldered in rather than socketed, you probably 
have a KAYPRO 4 board. Two double-sided drives 
and a copy of the disk formatter for double-sided 
disks should get you rolling. 

Note: Not everyone who drives a car can 
dismantle, repair and reassemble an automatic 
transmission. Computer users are not all hardware 
types. Don't go exploring inside your machine if 
you don't know what you are looking for or looking 
at. You can hurt the machine easily and it can 
hurt you badly (kill you even) if you fail to take 
the necessary precautions for handling such 
equipment. So if the previous paragraph seemed a 
bit cryptic, use discretion before you heed what 
you read. After all, your machine is working fine 
now. If no broke, no fix urn. Please read on. 

If your machine has a 2716 monitor ROM and a 
fully socketed board, you likely have a KAYPRO II 
and are in for some delicate soldering work. What 
must be done is to re-route some signal lines to 
permit the existing monitor socket to receive the 
new monitor ROM and add a disk drive side select 
signal to the 34 pin disk drive signal cable. 
There are several ways to do these modifications 
and there are variations depending on which disk 
drive controller chip you have. Also, one 74LS04 

hex inverter must be changed to a 74S04 in the- 
process. You will have to remove the board fr<— 
the machine and solder some jumpers on both sic 
of it, even if you use additional sockets or 
headers to avoid soldering on the chips. 

I omit the details because they are documented 
in the information available from Micro 
Cornucopia, and I want the non-hardware types to 
keep reading so they can get a feel for the 
process and an appreciation of the payoff of going 
through it or having it done. 

When the wiring changes are done, you have a 
"4" board and will want to install double-sided 
drives. If you use two full height drives or two 
half height drives and the existing mounting 
holes, you save some sheet metal work. If, 
however, you want to mount two half height drives 
in the space formerly occupied by one full height 
drive, you must remove the drive cage, lay out 
new holes and drill them, reinstall the cage, and 
finally install the new drives. A word to the wise 
here: drill the mounting holes oversize and put 
washers under the heads of the mounting screws. 
You can rack the drive chassis and throw the drive 
out of alignment by trying to fit mounting screws 
into small holes that are just a bit off center. 
Having done the sheet metal work, you now have 
one full height drive slot free. 

Installation of the new monitor ROM completes 
the conversion. A KAYPRO 4 monitor ROM would 
work, but the PRO-8 monitor with its additio^^ 1 
features of 96 TPI drive support, easy convert 
to a three or four drive system and selection of 
cursor character is more attractive. 

Having made the changes, installed a PRO-8 ROM 
and two double side, double density 48 TPI drives, 
I have observed only two operational constraints: 
It is necessary to use separate utility programs 
to format and sysgen disks rather than using the 
handy menu-driven COPY program options. (COPY is 
still used for disk-to-disk copying.) The machine 
runs noticeably slower when I have a single-sided 
disk in one drive and a double-sided disk in the 
other. However, having 390K per disk is very 
nice and I have been reformatting my old "SSDD" 
disks to "DSDD" without a hitch. 

The next modification to this machine will be 
installation of two additional 96 TPI half height 
drives. That will add up to approximately 2.4 
Megabytes of floppy on a "KAYPRO II. " The only 
problem at the moment with this plan is to stop 
using the machine long enough to proceed with the 

Final thought: If you are interested in doing 
these or other modifications to your machine (s), 
please join in the exchange of information amongst 
"PRO-8 ROM SIG" members. We have used a variety 
of techniques and hardware to accomplish our 
modifications and have learned a few things to 
avoid in the process. 

Mike Drooker is a consulting engineer who runs his 
I Kaypro in Sanbornville, N.H. 

The Boston Kugel 

Fall 1984 



a beta-test report by Dean Ammer 

Any product evaluation is necessarily 
influenced by the user's applications. I use my 
Kaypro 4 about 8 hours per week. Roughly half of 
this time is spent in Wordstar on correspondence 
and articles for a publication in which I have an 
interest. The balance is spent in Perfect Calc on 
tax records and in performing analysis on 8 stock 
portfolios that I manage. I have tried Multiplan 
and Perfect Writer but rejected them in favpr of 
their alternatives. I have never really used 
Perfect Filer. 

My evaluation of the 88 included both 
experience in MS/DOS and in CP/M f using the 
"third disk drive." For reasons that I will 
explain later , I reached the following 

1. If one wants to run MS/DOS — IBM programs , an 
IBM clone can be obtained at a price that is 
reasonably competitive with the 88, and it will 
perform more consistently. The third disk drive 
feature would not, under these circumstances, 
make the 88 a preferred purchase over the clone. 
My conclusion is reinforced by a suspicion that 
the extra board in the 88 may, over time, create 

^ problem because of extra heat and, also, poorer 
/entilation than a conventional Kaypro 4. 

2. As a marginal purchase for someone who already 
owns a Kaypro, the board converting a 4 to an 88 
should be considered only under special 
circumstances. The most likely purchaser would 
be someone who spends 25 or 30 hours per week in 
Perfect Writer. The $500 cost could be justified 
by the saving in time. Another possible buyer is 
someone who badly wants a particular MS/DOS 
program not available in CP/M. This buyer should 
be certain, however, that the program will indeed 
run on the 88. My prediction is that it won't. In 
fact, my own week with the 88 can fairly be 
described as an exercise in frustration as 
indicated by the following experiences. 

— I tried both Wordstar and Perfect Writer in 
the ramdisk mode. It was hard for me to identify 
subjectively an impmrovement in Wordstar. There 
undoubtedly is a reduction in "switching" time in 

— I tried Perfect Calc in the ramdisk. There 
may have been some modest improvement in time, 
but PC was still slow, even when I eliminated a 
lot of waiting around by operating in manual 
mode. In addition, the ramdisk does not solve a 
major problem I encounter with PC — namely, lack 
of memory. In ramdisk, you still have 64k, not 


— I tried Perfect Writer in MS/DOS. If you 
like PW in CP/M, you will love it in MS/DOS. I 
also tried a neighbor's WordStar in MS/DOS. It 

may be a little faster. But enter with caution. 
Two cursor keys on the 88 don't work that way in 
MS/DOS Wordstar. One of them gives you a 
control- J, and the other gives a Control-K: 
Smartkey for those who aren't that smart. 

— I tried three other IBM programs. None of 
them was graphic and perhaps they will work for 
someone other than me. In each instance, they 
came up ok but then simply stopped. In one of 
them (where my neighbor wrote the program), the 
program wanted a command in an IBM "F" key, but I 
was not able to give it. 

— The greatest disappointment came when I 
took the 88 to a software store in Boston and 
tested the program Investment Manager, which is 
written in MS/DOS and will run on IBM and clones, 
as well as DEC and NEC. It started ok but stopped 
when the menu told me to punch key F-3. 
Obviously, I was not able to oblige. Later I 
called the software company in California and they 
said that if I were clever, I could get around this 
obstacle, but that I would be stopped cold later 

— Finally, I called SWP in Texas and asked 
them what would run on the 88. Here I got both 
good and bad news. The good news is that the 
latest Kaypro will take their latest board and will 
do quite a bit. But the BOSKUG +88 is apparently 
much more limited, even though it is only a few 
months old. Thus, the bad news is that existing 
Kaypro owners should definitely try the board 
before they buy it or they may be disappointed. 
Its applications in MS/DOS are highly limited. 

Admittedly, my evaluation is at least partly 
influenced by two failures that are unrelated to 
the 88. I was not able to run either the Condor or 
the Multiplan programs that came with the 88. In 
one case, there definitely was a bad 
diskette — possibly from electrical interference 
acquired by travelling around. In the other case, 
the program behaved more or less like my 
neighbor's program: it started up ok and then 
just got tired and stopped. 

If Kaypro is to continue marketting in MS/DOS, 
I would recommend they bundle in the obvious 
MS/DOS programs and include not only the software 
company manual but also something translating it 
into Kaypro-ese. 

Dean Ammer is an economist who works at the 
Hospital Purchasing Institute. 

HCS Computer Center 

"Computer Business Solutions" 

• IBM • KAYPRO • Dimension 68000 • Columbia • Corona 
Sharp pcSOOO • Small Business Accounting Systems 

IBM Networks 

751 Plain Street (Rt. 130) 

MmMW4 MA 02060 

(617) 837-6074 

Fall 1984 

The Boston Kugel 


^Tipsjor* Beginners 


by Sarah Wernick 

If you are a novice computer user who bought a 
Kaypro to do work processing, spread sheeting or 
data base managing, you should learn as LITTLE as 
possible about CP/M during your novitiate. Why? 
Because learning your first application program is 
quite enough — and besides, CP/M's manual is 
notoriously user-hostile. What follows is all you 
really need to know about CP/M right now — 
unless, of course, you bought the machine to learn 
machine language. 

CP/M (Control Program for Microprocessors) is 
the Kaypro's operating system. Think of it as an 
electronic administrator, which sets up the basic 
arrangements under which your hardware 
(keyboard, screen, disk drives) and programs all 
manage to work together. For instance, when you 
save a file, CP/M assigns it to a space on your 
disk and keeps a record of its location so you can 
find it again. When you print a file, CP/M 
translates your print command into machine talk 
that actually gets the letters onto paper. 

Without CP/M, just about all your Kaypro can 
do is holler (so to speak) "Gimme a diskette!" — 
which is what it does if you turn on the machine 
and don't place a disk in Drive A. (The other 
thing the Kaypro can do on its own is kvetch "I 
can't read your diskette," which is what it does 
if you try to give Drive A a disk without CP/M.) 

Every disk you use — the program disks and 
the blanks you format — has a small segment 
devoted to the operating system. Like any good 
administrator, the system functions invisibly most 
of the time. In addition to the CP/M on each 
disk, your Kaypro came with a special CP/M disk, 
which has many powerful programs on it. You've 
already used a few of these programs (like COPY, 
FORMAT, and PIP). Eventually, you may want to 
explore the rest. But in your early days of 
computer ownership (still assuming your prime 
interest is in application programs, not hacking) , 
there's no need to worry about them. 

The Kaypro manual guides you through your 
first meeting with CP/M, providing instructions 
for copying master disks and formatting blanks. 
By the time you make backup copies of all the 
bundled software, and format your first box of 
disks, you've mastered these essential tasks. 
(You HAVE backed up all your masters, haven't 

The Kaypro manual says, but doesn't (in my 
view) adequately emphasize, another essential 
CP/M task: informing the operating system when 
you change disks. EVERY TIME YOU CHANGE DISKS, 

KEY AND THE C KEY!!! When you do this, you will 
get a "warm boot" message, which is the machine's 
way of saying that it has been partially reset ar 
can accept a new program disk. Some program., 
don't require a warm boot, but others do. like 
many novices I didn't know this, and spent a 
frustrating first month wondering why my spell 
check program wouldn't work properly. 

Pressing the RESET button is the equivalent of 
turning the machine off and on again. This also 
permits you to insert a new disk, but a reset may 
be less desirable than a warm boot, since it can 
destroy useful information that you've put into 
the machine. For instance, if you are using 
SMARTKEY — an application program that permits 
you to redefine keys — a reset will wipe out any 
definitions you haven't saved. In practice, this 
isn't a problem for most novice users. 

CP/M also handles various essential 
"housekeeping" chores for the Kaypro: it will tell 
you what files are on the disk; erase unwanted 

(and sometimes, if you aren't careful, wanted) 
files, rename files, and copy files. Since novices 
can't (or certainly shouldn't) escape these tasks, 
you've probably had a few run-ins with PIP (for 
copying) , DIR (to call up a disk's directory) , ERA 

(to erase a file) and REN (to rename a file) . 
Incidentally, I found it easier to remember the 
command format (which had always seemed 
backwards) by thinking of it as an algebraic 
statement (let x = y) rather than an English 
language statement (change or copy y to x) . 

THERE'S AN EASIER WAY! One of the very firsu 
things any novice should do is to get one of the 
public domain (i.e. free) housekeeping programs 
from your friendly group. DISK is particularly 
good for beginners. It presents you with an 
extremely simple menu of housekeeping chores, 
then lists the files on your disk one by one. If 
you want to copy a file, just type C (the program 
accepts both upper and lower case letters); when 
it asks you what drive you want to copy to, type 
A or B. If you want to delete a file, type D 

(you'll then be asked to reconfirm with Y for yes 
or N for no) . 

A friend described his first night with his 
Kaypro as "the second most frustrating night of my 
life." The terseness of CP/M, which makes for 
early, TEMPORARY confusion, also provides 
efficiency later on. Ultra-friendly computers, 
like the Macintosh, welcome you to the electronic 
world far more cordially, but they use up lots of 
time and memory with their let's-make-it-simple 
menus. Mastering the essentials of CP/M will give 
you a sense of computer literacy. And, if, heaven 
forbid, you might want to deal with an IBM PC or 
compatible, you will find that PC DOS and MS DOS 
both seem very familiar (in a way that Apple DOS 
does not), although copying commands, for 
example, are framed in the opposite, "more 
English," di rect ion. 

Sarah Wernick is a Brookline-based writer who is 
madly in love with her Kaypro. 




The Boston Kugel 

Fall 138* 

■J - ' * 


lu*Perfect Systems 
^ox 1494, Idyllwild, CA 92349; $45 

A software review by Mark De Guire 

This is an appropriate , if unusual, title for a 
useful bundle of utility programs that reside 
quietly in memory while you run other software. 
Then, without losing your place in the original 
program, you can 

* Check your directory 

* Delete, rename, or display other files 

* Get a hard copy of the screen display or a 
complete text file 

* Write or read a memo 

* Refer to a help file you've written 

In addition, The Backgrounder provides 
full-featured key reassignment. 

Peter A McWilliams praised The Backgrounder in 
Word Processing on the Kaypro, and the 
Mar /Apr' 84 issue of PROFILES discusses keyboard 
redefinition programs, including The 

Backgrounder, quite thoroughly. To supplement 
these reviews, I'll describe my experience as a 
computer novice learning and using The 
Backgrounder. Since I bought this package, its 
price has gone up; though reasonably priced, it's 
no longer a steal. You must have Plu*Perfect 
Systems' CP/M 2.2E ($32) or Plu*Perfect Writer 
^$39 from P*PS, or $25 from BOSKUG) to run The 
^backgrounder ($45). Add $3 shipping, and subtract 
$5 if ordering two or more of these programs, to 
figure your total cost. 

It takes a while to appreciate what this 
program enables you to do. Unlike most software, 
you mold it to your needs, rather than mold 
yourself to the software. I jot down outlines for 
documents on The Backgrounder's NOTEPAD, and can 
refer to them quickly while writing without 
leaving WordStar. SNAPSHOT will print out a 
screen's worth of a spreadsheet without a single 
save, exit, copy, or formatting command. In case 
of a "Disk full - can't save file" emergency, 
jettisoning unneeded files will be a breeze. The 
HELP file is a natural place for a list of new key 
definitions. None of these features is 
revolutionary, just handy and habit-forming. I 
don't know if The Backgrounder's key reassignment 
capability is the icing or the cake of this 
package; some keyboard programs cost more, but 
lack the "background CP/M" features described in 
the last paragraph. 

If Kaypro 's limited number and cursor 
reassignment capability (see PROFILES, Jul/Aug 
'83 or Jan/Peb '84) has only whetted your appetite 
for this convenience, The Backgrounder should 
satisfy it. In WordStar, I've set \p ("backslash" 
followed by p) to save and print the current file, 
-""causing for paper change (~Kd p ~R [CR] [CR] [CR] 

Mark De Guire is a graduate student at MIT in 
Materials Science. 

[CR] [CR] [CR] y [CR] ) . My wife likes the opening 
help menu and ruler line; I get rid of them, and 
set up my thesis page format, with \t (*Jh2 ~0t 
~0r70 ~0s2 ~0j). Instead of ~Qr to scroll to the 
beginning of a file, I've assigned ~Kd d ~R [CR] to 
the keypad 1, which also saves the file. For this 
review, \b typed The Backgrounder, control 
characters and all. The Backgrounder's many 
options are daunting at first. There are two ways 
to execute any feature, and all can be reassigned 
to different keys for different programs. Key 
definitions can be saved, changed, or discarded. 
If your software disks are stuffed, you can load 
The Backgrounder from its own disk and then 
replace it with your software disk. Space 
permitting (The Backgrounder needs 12k or more, 
depending on the size of your definition file and 
what other modules you want to use) , you can have 
The Backgrounder on every disk, and even have it 
load automatically on cold boot. This fle x ibility 
makes the program initially unwieldy, but the 
ability to experiment and customize your other 
software is well worth it. 

The cost of this convenience is a noticeable 
slowdown in some of the Kaypro software. This 
ranges from less than five seconds extra when 
calling up WordStar or saving a 6k text, to a full 
two minutes extra when loading Perfect Calc and 
three associated spreadsheets totaling 24k. With 
The Backgrounder loaded, Perfect Calc crashed 
trying to load seven small associated spreadsheets 
totaling 28k; I don't know whether the number of 
spreadsheets or their total size caused this. The 
••background CP/M" features act a lot like the 
windows in Apple's Macintosh or in some of the IBM 
PC's software. The Backgrounder's implementation 
of this idea for the Kaypro is necessarily less 
seamless and sophisticated. After using a 
Backgrounder feature in WordStar, the original 
screen is automatically redisplayed, but only 
after some distracting scrolling that takes about 
10 seconds. 

The Backgrounder requires Plu*Perfect's CP/M 
2.2E, a modified version of the CP/M that comes 
with the Kaypros. The two systems are not 
interchangeable, but according to the manual, the 
user won't know the difference with most 
software. Two exceptions are Catchum and Ladder, 
which are unacceptably choppy in 2.2E. The 
documentation is thorough but poorly organized. 
Technical information and over-long discussions of 
minor features bury "how-to" information of 
immediate and frequent interest. The 

instructions for creating and saving key 
reassignments for automatic loading with a user 
program, a mode most users would use frequently, 
are scattered over five chapters. Skim the manual 
first, then peruse the sections you're most 
interested in. Anyone willing to experiment with 
The Backgrounder's features, and who uses a 
Kaypro more than about five hours a week, will 
quickly get his money's worth. Together, its 
modules make your personal computer more useful, 
flexible, and — well, personal. 

Fall 1984 

The Boston Kugel 




by Charlie Bowen 

Recently I got a disk with a long DOC file on it 
in squeezed form. When I unsqueezed it, it came 
to lllkb. This file had been written in WordStar, 
and I could have printed it as it was, but I 
wanted to make some changes in the format. (When 
I'm going to read something that long, I want to 

be able to do it comfortably.) 

The trouble is, it's impossible to edit a 

WordStar file that takes up more than half the 
capacity of a disk. WordStar automatically saves 
the original version of any file you edit, 
designating it a backup copy, and it flatly refuses 
to save the new version unless there's room for 
both on the disk. The obvious solution was to 
break the long file up into shorter ones, but how 
could I do that without actually using WordStar? 

The answer was DUU, of course. After calling 
it up, first, I read around in the file using the V 
(View) command, which displays text on the 
screen. In this way I located several likely 
points at which to break it. Because these break 
points never happened to come exactly on the 
dividing line between two groups, I knew that 
several groups would have to be used twice, 
appearing at the end of one section and again at 
the beginning of the next, so I used the "«" and 
"»" commands to transfer each section of text to 
another disk. This way, the overlapping groups 
could be duplicated without difficulty. 

After each section of the original file had been 
transferred, I changed its last sector, using 
DUU's ability to write on the disk. Specifically, 
I blanked out any characters at the end that 
belonged to the next section by replacing them 
with hex lA's (1A is the "end of file" indicator 
that most CP/M programs recognize) . 

Once the end of the file had been marked and 
the groups it occupied on the new disk listed, it 
was time to write a directory entry. I did this 
for each section in turn. At the end, I had five 
WordStar files where there had been one. They 
were spread between two disks, so that backup 
files could be saved without creating space 
problems. Formatting was easy, and printing the 
result as orie continuous document was much less 
of a pain than Perfect Writer habitues would 

Charlie Bowen, BOSKUG librarian, has returned to 
the trenches at U. Mass. Boston, where he is 
professor of Gaelic and English languages. 



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396 Washington Street • Wellesley, MA 02181 




The Boston Kugei 

Fall 1984 




reviewed by Sarah Wernick 


(both on BOSKUG.201) 


Summit Software Corporation 

880 Second Street, Suite Two 

Santa Rosa, CA 95404; distributed by Digital 

Marketing Corp. , 2363 Boulevard Circle, Walnut 

Creek, CA 94595; $29.95 

Hunt-and-peck typing on a word processor 
makes about as much sense as driving down a super 
highway in a horse and buggy. If you didn't learn 
touch typing in junior high school, let your 
Kaypro teach you this important skill. The 
computer can also give you a refresher course if 
you know how to type, but would like to improve 
your speed. 

The BOSKUG library has two rudimentary typing 

programs — T-Tutor and Typo2 — that are worth 

looking at, considering their price. But if money 

is no object, you'll probably be happier with 

^HyperTyper . 

To run the two library programs, you must 
first load MBASIC, then after the "ok" type 


RUN "TYP02" <CR> 

T-Tutor begins with a hasty lesson describing 
which fingers are assigned to which keys. Then 
you're asked which letters you'd like to 
practice. You also must decide how many letters 
should be in each "word" you will type, and how 
many "words" should be in the practice set. The 
words are simply randomly selected letters from 
the group you requested; all words are the same 
length and they are presented one at a time. Not 
exactly like your correspondence or magnum opus. 
As you finish one word, the next is presented. If 
you make a mistake, it is identified and then the 
next word appears. At the end of the set you're 
told how many errors you made — but not how fast 
you typed. 

Typo2 is a bit fancier. It offers a choice of 
difficulty levels, and it even addresses you by 
name from time to time. Each practice set 
consists of 25 lines — some sentences, some 
words, some non-word letter combinations. You'll 
probably notice your errors as you go along, but 
the machine doesn't point them out. At the end 
of the set you get an error count and a speed 
>core that does not appear to be a conventional 
tford-per-minute measure. 

I found Typo2 very boring because of the long 
practice sets. There's a lot of typing to do 

before you get any feedback. Also, if you get 
caught up in competing against the clock, it can 
be demoralizing to finish out a lengthy practice 
set that you hopelessly botched at the beginning. 
The time factor would be a particularly serious 
drawback if you were trying to motivate a child to 
learn touch typing. 

Though HyperTyper isn't the ultimate typing 
instructional program, it is far superior to the 
other two; the drawbacks mentioned below apply to 
the public domain programs as well. Before you 
can use HyperTyper for the first time, you have 
to run two simple, well-documented ins t al lat ion 
programs: one to select a terminal configuration 
(Kaypro emulates a Lear-Siegler ADM-3A) and the 
other to set the clock that calculates your typing 
speed. In a few minutes, you're ready to start 
learning how to type. 

Or are you? If you've taken typing classes you 
know how important it is to use correct 
fingering, to sit properly and to keep your eyes 
off the keys. The manual tells you about all this, 
but if you forget, no one is going to remind you 
— an intrinsic limitation of learning from a 
machine (at least for now). Nevertheless, the 
program can help you do the regular practice 
required to make your fingers fly nimbly over the 

The main menu gives four practice options: 
learning new keys; typing paragraphs; doing a 
general practice; and working on the numeric 
keypad. The menu also permits you to choose 
between using the space bar (as with a word 
processor) or the carriage return (as with a 
typewriter) at the end of a line. 

If you opt to learn new keys or practice a 
paragraph, a second menu will come up offering 12 
groups of keys to work on. Not everything on the 
Kaypro keyboard is included: you're on your own 
for the escape, control, delete, tilda, tab, 
backspace, back slash, bracket and cursor keys. 

"Learn New Keys" dishes up two lines of 
practice on the order of "k kk dk kd s ss" etc. 
You type under the model; if you make a mistake, 
an up-arrow appears to point it out. "Practice 
Paragraph" works the same way, but with four 
one-line sentences per drill. "General Practice" 
covers the entire keyboard, presenting four 
sentences per drill. Sentences are chosen at 
random from a limited stock; the meaningless 
letters of "Learn New Keys" never change. 

After you finish your two or four lines, you're 
told how many words per minute you typed and how 
many mistakes you made. The machine does not 
give you a net score that takes errors into 
account, although the manual provides 
instructions for making the calculation yourself. 
You'll also have to refer back to the manual to 
find out which finger is used for which key, 
information that easily could have been provided 
on screen. 

The dr ills are short enough to prevent fatigue 
and boredom. But it isn't clear how to combine 

(Continued on p. 15) 

Fall 1984 

The Boston Kugel 

\c7VIembers Corner 


by Lee Lockwood 

When I bought my first computer, a Kaypro II, 
I had, like most of us, a number of misguided 
expectations about what this new machine was 
going to do for me — change my life, make me 
wealthy, allow me to work three hours a day and 
play tennis the rest of the time, etc. None of 
those wishful thoughts has come to pass, alas. 

There were also certain things I assumed that a 
computer would do for me more or less 
automatically, a wonderful machine like that. 
Here are three of them: I thought it would type; 
I thought it would calculate; and I thought for 
sure that I'd be able to print anything that 
appeared on my screen. 

I bought the Kaypro mainly in order to do 
"word processing" — a term I still find so strange 
that I have to write it in quotes. Since I was 
spending all this money, I figured the least it 
ought to be able to do was type out on a piece of 
paper exactly what I banged out on the keyboard. 
Boy, was I naive. 

Watching Rick, the store salesman, 
demonstrate the wonders of Perfect Writer, I had 
been thrilled at all the amazing feats I would be 
able to perform once I learned the program: 
magical moments like "search-and-replace," 
"yank-back," "bloc moves," even "automatic 
indexing." What Rick had not prepared me for was 
the unhappy discovery that, in order to type a 
simple envelope, I was required to do the 
following: boot up Perfect Writer, choose the 
Edit option from the menu, give the envelope a 
file name, turn off the page numbering with 
@PAGEFOOTING(), type the name and address, save 
it to disk, return to the main menu, enter 
Perfect Formatter and, finally, using the 
quick-print option to save time(!), print it out. 


Furthermore, I never could get the margins 
right on the envelope. 

Perfect Writer proved even more useless when I 
wanted to fin out a questionnaire or a form that 
required typing in answers to questions on each 


I called Rick about this, and over the phone he 
taught me how to use Control-P to type things. 
(It probably was in the manual somewhere all 
along, but did you ever try to find something in 
one of those manuals? ) That was a big improvement 
as far as it went — but it didn't backspace, and 
what did you do when you'd made a mistake? 

I fought the admission for a long time, but it 
finally became clear to me that my typewriter was 
faster. And would always be faster. And so, I 
unpacked the Smith-Corona again and left it out on 
the table for simple typing tasks like envelopes. 
To my delight, it worked fine! (I'd forgotten 
what it was like to have a Tab key that worked.) 
Lucky I hadn't sold it! 

Later on, after the formation of BOSKUG, I 
discovered, successively, the public domain 

utilities WASH, DISK and SWEEP, all of which 
allow you (among many other things) to print out a 
straight text file merely by pushing one key^ 
That discovery cut my time in half for envelop 
and simple letters. But it still didn't solve the 
questionnaire problem. 

Now, ladies and gentlemen, we need a flourish 
of trumpets. Of all people, the folks at Kaypro 
corporation has just come out with a progtam of 
its own called "TYPE-IT" which is designed to 
"turn your computer into a typewriter." While 
this claim does not affirm the kind of 
technological Great Leap Forward we assume a 
computer is supposed to represent, those of us 
who have struggled to do simple typing can 
appreciate this for what it is: a minor miracle. 

Written by a fellow named Robert Brown 
specifically for Kaypro 's new printer, (really a 
Juki 6100), TYPE-IT has three modes: 1) 
half-screen; 2) single-line; and 3) direct. In the 
half-screen and single-line modes you can set 
margins and tabs and make corrections before 
sending the text to the printer with a ~P. ~C 
let's you change these settings, and ~N clears the 
screen for new text. The half-screen let's you 
type 12 lines before you run out of space, enough 
for a postcard or a short memo, but not for a 
letter, which will probably take three or four 
passes before you're finished. 

But the neat part of TYPE-IT is the 3rd mode, 
in which everything you type is echoed to the 
printer. The difference between this and CP/MVs^ 
~P command is that TYPE-IT lets you move t 
print wheel a space at a time, forward or 
backward, by tapping the right or left arrow key, 
and let's you move the paper up or down in the 
printer a line at a time by tapping the up or down 


Did I say print wheel? That's right, TYPE-IT 
won't work on dot-matrix printers. In fact, it 
will only work on the newer Kaypros, the ones 
with the video screens. Moreover, to get it to 
work perfectly, you apparently have to have a Juki 
printer. I have a Daisywriter, and everything 
works fine except for two things: 1) when I go 
into "direct" mode my printer momentarily 
convulses and voluntarily prints a "2" where the 
print head is; 2) the up-arrow key doesn't move 
the paper up (though the down-arrow moves it 
down okay). I can live with these limitations 
okay. If TYPE-IT works with my printer, it 
probably works ' at least 90% with many other 
brands, and I suggest you get it from the library 
and try it out. [Editor's note: also see Peter 
Bates' review elsewhere in this issue of a similar 

Progress it ain't, but it sure beats booting up 
WordStar or Perfect Writer for envelopes. 


My second mistaken assumption when I bought 
my first computer was that anytime I wanted 
print-out of something that appeared on ti— 
screen I would merely have to press a button and 
the printer would oblige. (I think I'd seen an 


The Boston Kugel 

Fall 1984 

IBM PC back when I was shopping around and had 
seen a key marked "print screen.") Though there 
was no such key marked on the Kaypro keyboard, it 
never occurred to me that something that simple 
would not be part of every computer. 
""^ However, once I had the machine home and 
opened the manual, I could find no reference to 
such a function. I called Rick, of course. This 
time, he just laughed. 

Ever since then, I've been on the lookout for a 
piece of software or hardware that would do what 
is called in the trade a "screen dump." One day, 
D wight Woodruff brought in just such a program, 
and I was in pig heaven. It did reside in the 
operating system, and therefore required 
re-sysgening all the disks I wanted to use it on, 
but so what — it worked. 

M Y J°Y was short-lived however: a few weeks 
later I traded up to a new Kaypro 4, only to learn 
that Dwight's program worked only on the "old" 
Kaypro lis. Anyone who works with computers 
knows this as the binary version of Murphy's Law. 

Now the world of public domain software has 
suddenly yielded up the solution in a nifty little 
package called, simply, DUMP.COM. This one does 
not have to be embedded in your CP/M; it's just a 
little program you load first like any other, and 
it stays in memory until the next cold boot or 
reset. Whenever you see something on your screen 
you'd like to print out, you merely press ~@ (or 
any other characters you wish to designate as the 
dump trigger — you can change the default 
easily) , and out it spews. We have this program 
in the BOSKUG library. There is a version for 
"^\ch kind of Kaypro. Personally, I don't know how 
* ever did without it. 

My final bit of naivete about computers had to 
do with their ability to do computations. Now, I 
am not a technically-minded person. I am a word 
person. Therefore, when I speak of computations, 
I am thinking of addition, subtraction, 
multiplication and division. I simply assumed that 
my new $2000 toy would have such functions 
built-in, so that every time I wanted to figure 
the sales tax, say, on $463.00, I could just type 
on the screen 463 x .05 and get the answer. 

This assumption was confirmed visually when I 
first saw the Kaypro keyboard and spotted that 
block of blue number keys off to the right side. I 
know a calculator when I see one. What else could 
it be — especially since the regular number keys 
were in place along the top row of the keyboard, 
just like on a regular typewriter? 

One night, I visited Phil Marshall, who is an 
acoustical engineer and does real calculations all 
the time. Imagine my astonishment when I saw 
that he had affixed to his computer, between the 
disk drives and the screen, one of those miniature 
calculators that people who can't bear to be 
without a number-cruncher wear as wrist 

"What's that?" I asked Phil. 

"That's a calculator," he said reasonably. 
f^ "Then, what's THAT?" I asked, pointing at the 
lue number keys. 

"That's a numerical keypad," he said. Then he 
showed me how quickly he could enter numbers 

using the keypad. I wasn't impressed. In fact, I 
was DEpressed. 

To this day, I am still waiting for a simple 
program that will do on-screen math for me. 
Perhaps it will surface someday, on some remote 
bulletin board. 

The moral of this story — of all three stories 
— is that computers are great tools that make 
difficult tasks easier, but that, at the same 
time, they often make some easy jobs more 
difficult than they need to be. It should not* take 
an Act Of Congress to get a computer to fill out 
Questionnaires or type envelopes without going 
through a dozen functions; those things should be 
part of the basic package. The ability to print 
out what's on the screen at any given moment 
should likewise be part of the machine's basic 
abilities, not something you have to download from 
somewhere and add to your software library. And 
it is sublimely ridiculous not to be able to do 
simple calculations without having first to load a 
spreadsheet program or an equivalent program in 

Functions such as screen-dumps, calculations, 
alphabetized directories, and "unerase" (the 
ability to restore a recently-erased file to the 
directory), to name only a few, should be written 
in a computer's ROM and be accessible just by 
turning on the machine, without having to boot up 
a program. Computer manufacturers still don't 
seem to have the foggiest idea of what a person, 
particularly a beginner, really needs from a 
personal computer. Until they start making the 
simple things easy and the difficult things more 
understandable, only those willing to invest time, 
money and untold frustration will buy their 
products, while the great unwashed masses will 
hold onto their typewriters and calculators and 
delay on a serious computer purchase until 
somebody sees the light. 

Lee Lockwood, Founding Father, needs no intro- 

Library (Continued from p. 3) 

type a space, a slash and a V (" /V") between the 
S and the carriage return. If you substitute an H 
for the V, you'll see a long list of options the 
program gives you, each one called for by a slash 
followed by a letter (and sometimes other 
information as well). You can give the directory 
display a title in place of the usual "DRIVE A" or 
"DRIVE B," make it show one column or two instead 
of the usual three, and have it automatically go 
to your printer as well as your screen. S will 
also do an automatic disk reset so the free-space 
figure will remain accurate, or list the files in a 
user area other than the one you're logged into. 
All you have to know is where and how to ask for 
the options — and if you follow the instructions 
above (" /H") the program will tell you how to do 
that. (The screen-dump program on Disk U2 is a 
good way to print this list out.) 

Fall 1984 

The Boston Kugel 




by William Lockeretz 

Homonyms are groups of two or more words 
similar in pronunciation, but different in spelling 
and meaning: "right" and "write," for instance. 
The Word Plus, the spell checker bundled with the 
Kaypro, includes a feature called "Homonym 
Helper," which is intended to point out possible 
homonym errors in your files. Unfortunately, it 
is not very convenient to use. But if you have 
either Punctuation and Style or Grammatik 
(language-checking programs reviewed elsewhere in 
this issue), you can use them to check your files 
for Homonym Helper's list of dangerous 

Homonym Helper has no review function. It 
simply marks in your document file every 
occurrence of the words on its list. You must 
then go through the document with the word 
processor, searching for the marking character, 
eliminating it, and changing any incorrectly used 
words you find. Imagine having to delete a mark 
each time you use a word like "their" or "two" and 
you'll understand why this procedure is tedious; 
indeed, you probably risk making more errors in 
erasing marks than you'll find and correct with 
the program. 

Fortunately, Grammatik or Punctuation and 
Style can streamline homonym checks 
considerably. Both of these programs allow you to 
inspect each occurrence of a suspect word or 
phrase and to mark only those that really need 
correction. Both programs have simple methods 
for adding your own entries to their dictionary of 
potentially problematic words. But neither of 
these dictionaries starts out with an extensive 
list of homonyms. So if you supplement either 
program with your own customized version of the 
lengthy homonym dictionary available in The Word 
Plus, you'll be adding to their checking power. 
Here's how to make your own dynamic duo. 

1. Make an expendable copy of HOMONYMS.TXT 
— the homonym dictionary in The Word Plus — and 
go through it with your word processor to delete, 
any words you are confident you do not get 
wrong. You need not delete all members of a 
homonym group; if you sometimes write "course" 
when you mean "coarse," but do not tend to make 
the reverse mistake, deleting only "coarse" will 
eliminate some "false negatives" but still detect 
actual errors. More on this topic later. By the 
way, when you go through this process you will 
discover a fourfold homonym set ! 

2. Convert your shortened homonym list to the 
proper form — one word per line — by globally 
replacing <SPACE> with <CARRIAGE RETURN>. 

3. Add the "end of word" marker (+ for 
Punctuation and Style; # for Grammatik) by 
globally replacing <CARRIAGE RETURN> by the 
marker followed by a carriage return. 

4. Add any explanations or possible alternative 
spellings after the + or # sign of the relevant^ 
line; these will be displayed if the program finc^ 
that particular word in your text. Grammatik ha^ 
certain conventions for this, explained on pp. 
25-28 of the manual; however, you do not have to 
follow them. 

5. If you wish to check for homonyms 
automatically whenever you use P&S or Grammatik 
to check for other phrases, merge your homonym 
list with the existing phrase list (PATTERNS.TXT 
or PHRASES. GMK respectively), using either PIP 
or your word processor. Otherwise, you can keep 
the homonym list as a separate file (but under 
some name other than HOMONYMS.TXT) and run 
PHRASE or GMK with this file rather than the 
default dictionary. 

6. With Grammatik, it is desirable to eliminate 
duplications if you have chosen to merge your 
homonym list with the original phrase list 
(PHRASES . GMK) . Otherwise, you will get two 
error messages for each occurrence of any words 
that appear in both the original program 
PHRASES. GMK and your homonym list. (This does 
not happen with Punctuation and Style.) The 
quickest way to identify and delete duplications 
is by alphabetizing the merged list with 
Grammatik 's SORTDICT utility (p. 24), then 
scrolling down the alphabetized file with your 
work processor; duplications will be easy to 
spot. ^_ 

The process just described above is qui* 
straightforward. But the key to successful 
homonym checking is an intelligent choice of words 
to include; this will come with experience. A 
good principle is: If in doubt, leave it out. The 
full HOMONYMS.TXT includes words like "to," 
"by," and "there." That's a lot of extra error 
messages to discard. An important help is both 
programs' ability to check entire phrases, not 
just individual words. You might enter just 
"their is" and "their are," rather than "their." 
With Punctuation and Style, you car. go one step 
further and flag "there" except wher it occurs as 
"there is" and "there are," which necessarily are 
correct. (Page 25 of the P&S manual explains 

Finally, after you have aggressively trimmed 
the original homonym dictionary, you may wish to 
add some entries of your own. Remember that the 
procedure need not be limited to true homonyms. 
Use it for typographical errors that result in a 
proper English word that happens not to be what 
you intended, for instance, "thorough" for 
"through." or "when ever" for "whenever". Such 
errors are undetectable with a spelling checker 
and particularly easy to miss by eye. Let your 
previous writing guide you in knowing which 
substitutions you tend to make, and which sets of 
homonyms do and do not give you problems. 

Withal it'll thin king, Yule all weighs B.7^ 
bull two a void miss takes wen ewe right. 


The Boston Kugel 

Fall "98* 






reviewed by Alan Chapman 


Oasis Systems, San Diego, CA; $125 


Aspen Software Co., Tijeras, N.M.; $75 

In this corner, wearing a white cover and 
weighing one pound is PUNCTUATION & STYLE, 
owned by Oasis Systems, San Diego, CA, and 
trained by the eminent Wayne Holder (creator of 
WORD PLUS). In the far corner, in a buff cover, 
out of Aspen Software Co., Tijeras, NM, tipping 
the scales at a mere 7 ounces is the original 
grammar checker, GRAMMATIK. 

The marketing image these programs project 
imply that somehow all the grammar and 
punctuation you didn't learn in high school is 
magically in these programs and that they will 
transform all your writing into Pulitzer Prize 
prose. Wrongo! In fact, grammar checkers 
probably help the good writer more than the 
person who desparately needs the help. 

They both work on the same principle. 
v Grammar-wise, they look for phrases which are 
cliche (like "grammar-wise"), wordy or overused 
and suggest replacements. They also look for the 
most common punctuation errors and tell how to 
correct them. Grammatik also has a "Sexist" 
dictionary, which searches for male and female 
pronouns and offers neuter alternatives. 

They are really "style" checkers, more than 
grammar checkers, because they don't read the 
content. They can't tell if your subject and verb 
agree or if your sentence is even a sentence, nor 
can they tell how coherent or well-organized your 
thoughts are; but they can provide clues to help 

They do catch typo errors that spelling 
checkers miss. For instance, doubled words ("the 
the") or punctuation marks (",,"), missing capital 
letters at the beginning of a sentence or an extra 
capital, such as "STicky." 

Both programs offer word count and sort 
features. You can profile a document and find out 
how many of each different word you used. Don't 
snicker, I have found this feature a useful way to 
check whether I have overused a particular word 
or, conversely, used too many long words. 

Both will work with a number of word 
processing programs, including Perfect Writer or 
WordStar. P&S defaults to read WordStar; for 
other programs, you must set-up a special file 
identifying the print and formatting command 
symbols so that P&S will ignore them. Grammatik 
makes it slightly easier by including a question in 
its menu asking for the word processor's 

5 i ff |»p;jMB. — I ■■ 

formatting symbol ("@" for Perfect Writer; "." for 
Word Star) . 

These programs are not interactive, or, in 
latest software jargon, "in-line." They don't 
change your text; they simply identify errors. 
You have the option of marking the errors so you 
can go back into the document with your word 
processor and make corrections. Both programs 
also allow you to add words and phrases of your 
own choosing to their phrase dictionaries. 


Punctuation & Style consists of two programs 
(CLEANUP.COM and PHRASES.COM), and each must be 
run individually. Hence, if you want to check a 
document for both punctuation and style, you must 
make two passes. 

CLEANUP is a punctuation checker. It checks 
c^italization, double words ("the the"), standard 
use of punctuation marks, matched pairs of text 
markers (quote marks, parentheses, brackets, 
etc.), abbreviations, use of commas and decimal 
points in numerals and other mechanical faults. It 
is a tedious program. It checks for all these 
errors each time, so if you simply want to check 
capitalization, you have to go through all the 
other stops along the way. It also doesn't deal 
well with exceptions. For example, while it will 
catch the unintentional "the the," it also stops 
on intentional double words, like "very, very." 
After running CLEANUP on a couple of long 
documents, I went back to old-fashioned 
proof-reading - it was faster. 

PHRASES searches for cliche, wordy and 
overused phrases and suggests simpler 
alternatives. While the suggestions may not 
always be to your liking or the right choice in 
context, they do keep you thinking. "The idea is 
to make your writing more readable, not detract 
from your personal style. 

P&S also has a Passive Voice file (PASSIVE.TXT) 
which checks for phrases and sentences which use 
passive verb and prepositional phrases. The 
premise is that the "active" voice normally 
conveys meaning better than the "passive" voice. 
Again, it is a judgment decision, but at least you 
are challenged to think about your choice of 
words, which can only help improve your writing. 


Grammatik is a single program with two files 
(PHRASES. GMK and SEXIST. GMK) which can be run 
individually or simultaneously. Hence, you can 
check a document for all of Grammatik' s 
capabilities with one pass. PHRASES checks for 
all the same punctuation and style errors as the 
two P&S files except for passive voice. However, 
Grammatik breaks these errors into 18 categories 
and allows you to check any combination of 
categories. With Grammatik, for example, you can 

Alan Chapman, public relations consultant, is an 
itinerant Kaypro user. 

Fall 1984 

The Boston Kugel 


check a document solely for capitalization , if you 

When Grammatik completes checking your 
document , it gives you a summary which includes: 

the number of words and their average length (in 
characters) , the number of sentences you wrote, 
their average word length, your longest and 
shortest sentences, how many end with "?" and how 
many end with "!". This information can be useful 
in analyzing your document. Generally, documents 
with many long sentences and polysyllabic words 
tend to be hard to read. Lowering the average 
word and sentence length as well as reducing the 
number of long sentences is one measure of 
increased readability. 

Grammatik also tells how many times you've 
used the verb "to be" (in any form) and how many 
common prepositions appear in your document, and 
it allows you to define up to seven "user 
categories" of words or phrases of your own 
choosing which it checks and counts. A high ratio 
of "to be's" and prepositions to the number of 
sentences is often an indicator of verbosity, and 
suggests revision. It also recognizes a number of 
standard abbreviations (i.e, State names, months, 
and many standard business terms) and it can check 
your file for them. Maybe more important, it 
doesn't read the period at the end of these 
abbreviations as an end-of-sentence and slow down 
the checking process. 

Grammatik's "Sexist" dictionary flags 
gender-specific terms (e.g., he, she, him, her) 
and is very helpful if you want to "de-sex" your 
writing (or, conversely, if you are writing 
pornography and want to be sexist) . 


The P&S manual is almost 100 pages of muddled 
examples. Once you've plodded through it a couple 
of times, you can run the programs. It is 
complete, but poorly organized, poorly written 
and poorly indexed. Wayne Holder should stick to 
programming and leave the documentation to 

Grammatik's manual, on the other hand, is a 
joy! Its 24 pages are well organized, concise, 
readable instruction. You can read the whole' 
manual and be up-and-running in less than 30 
minutes, and you can quickly find anything you 
need to reference with the index. 


Neither of these programs is one you'll be 
inclined to use on a regular basis; they are simply 
not that convenient to run. The PHRASES features 
on both programs are the most useful. If you 
really need the help in punctuation and grammar, 
buy a good text book. It's probably worth owning 
one of these programs, if only to use on those 
occasional special letters or documents that you 

(Continued on p. 17) 


The Software Toolworks 

15233 Ventura Boulevard, Suite 1118 

Sherman Oaks, California 91403; $49.95 

A software review by Sarah Wernick 

When I first mentionned to a friend that I was 
geting a computer that came bundled with a spell 
check program, she said haughtily that she didn't 
need such a program because she is such a good 
speller. But I am not a very good spellor. I run 
everything I write through "The Word Plus," not 
just to check the spelling, but also to see if I 
have made any typographical errors. You may be 
wonderring if I botherred to do that with this 
column. I didn't: I ran it through another 
program called "Spell." 

Spell uses a somewhat different method to 
check spelling than does The Word Plus. Insteading 
of comparisoning each word againster a dictionary, 
as The Word Plus does, Spell reducings the word 
to roots, prefixs and suffixs, which it lets you 
combine at will. This has severals advantagers. 
First, it means that Spell requires relatively 
little disc space for its dictionary. Second, 
Spell can check a file very quickly. And third, 
this kind of spell checkker is much cheapper to 
produce than one that requirres a dictionary. But 
this system (which is also used by Perfec^ 
Speller) has a very important disadvantage. I'jl 
give you a hint: Spell tolded me that I didn't have 
any spelling errors in this paragraph and the one 
above. The Word Plus found 17. 

But seriously, folks. If you're going to use a 
spell check program, I'm not sure why you'd want 
this one, even if you got your Kaypro before The 
Word Plus was added to its bundle of software 
goodies. True, Spell is cheap and compact. But 
its apparent speed advantage is eliminated if Spell 
catches any mistakes: unlike The Word Plus, Spell 
can't make corrections. What it does is mark 
them for you so that you can go back and correct 
them with your word processor — a task that will 
more than make up for Spell's speed in checking 
your file. 

Spell offers five options for the words it 
identifies as possibly misspelled: to mark the 
word, ignore it, add it to the dictionary, add its 
root to the dictionary, or to start over from the 
beginning of the list. The Word Plus does more: 
it will add a word to an all-purpose or a special 
dictionary; it can show you a questioned word in 
context or suggest correct spellings. If you err 
in classifying a word, you can go back to it, 
without starting from the beginning. Also, The 
Word Plus comes with other features, such as a 
word count program, in addition to spell 

Finally, Spell has a fatal flaw, namely that i 
lets misspelled words get by. If you couldn't find 

(Continued on p. 15) 


The Boston Kugel 

Fall 1984 


TYPWTR (Version 1.0) 
tell Associates. Distributed by Elliam 
Associates, 24000 Bessemer Street, Woodland 
Hills, CA 91367; $30.00 

Reviewed by Peter Bates 

For $30 you can turn your word processor back 
into a typewriter. 

Now why would you want to do that? Didn't you 
buy your word processor to retire your 
typewriter, or at least drastically curtail its 
use? But you found out, just as you'd decided to 
keep the old Smith Corona in the closet as a 
spare, you had to type an envelope. 

Let's face it. It's a lot more bother to 
create, save, and format an envelope file on a 
word processor than to bang it out on a 
typewriter. You could, of course, buy a keyboard 
printer, but be prepared to increase your 
investment a great deal more than $30. I've always 
thought two keyboards were a classic case of 

TYPWTR solves this dilemma. It works on any 
printer with a backspacing printhead and a VDT 
whose cursor can be backspaced without erasing 
the characters it passes over. 

You start by setting up your own definition 
.files — one for your envelopes, one for your 
wo-across labels, another for your Boy Scout 
meeting notices — in short, a definition file for 
anything you don't want to save. By running a 
program called "TYPDEF" and choosing the "default 
condition definitions" submenu, you can specify 
where you want your margins and tab stops to 
appear. Among other variables, you can specify if 
you want your print head to follow you as you 
type. I found this useful only once — it showed me 
where the text would appear on the label. Then I 
turned it back off; it was just too distracting. 
Now the print head simply waits at the left margin 
until I'm finished typing a line. When I press 
<RET>, it types the line. 

After you've successfully set up your first 
definition file, whenever you call it up, you will 
see a ruler on the screen marking your tabs and 
margins. The status display resides to the right 
of the ruler. By using a predefined set of 
toggles, you can decide to override the defaults 
you set up in TYPDEF. For example, if you'd like 
that print head to follow you around this time, 
simply type A U. I found it useful when filling out 
one-time forms, like magazine subscriptions. 

TYPWTR is flexible. Editing is one of its best 
features. You can, when typing a line, do 
standard revisions — delete word right, delete to 
end of line, etc., as well as move the cursor word 
right, word left, and end of line. The default 
commands are based on Wordstar's. Since I use 
Perfect Writer, I changed the "control key 
definitions" submenu by assigning it new ASCII 

This brings up my first minor gripe. The 
makers of TYPWTR shouldn't assume everyone has an 
ASCII table . They should have included one in the 
appendix. Otherwise, the documentation is fair. 
It is not user-unfriendly, but there are no 
examples, no drawings, and no error messages to 
help install this program more efficiently. 
Nevertheless you can learn TYPWTR in an hour or 
two, depending on how comfortable you are with 
new software. 

My second gripe is that the program types only 
one line at a time. For example, if you are 
writing a memo, you cannot go back several lines 
and edit. It would be better if TYPWTR had a 
memory buffer of about 2K, so you could edit that 
letter to Mom. The closest it comes is its 
"save-to-text file mode." When you toggle it on, 
you can then save your text in TYPWTR by 
specifying the name of your file. You then write 
your file (without printing it, if you wish) and 
edit it through your word processor. To me this 
defeats the purpose of TWYWTR. 

TYPWTR' s other limitations (no boldface, no 
right justification, no print formatting 
commands) are really not serious. It is a modest 
program, and in this way performs its task 
admirably, with a host of user configurable 
options. It does everything a typewriter can. It 
even beeps when it nears the end of the line, 
telling you it's looking for the next available 
space. If you use it every day, it may pay for 
itself in correction ribbons within a year or 

SPELL (Continued from p. 14) 

! all 17 mistakes in the first two paragraphs, 
shouldn't you have a spell check program that 

TUTORIALS (Continued from p. 9 ) 

the drills into lessons, or tne lessons into a 
typing course. The instructions in the manual are 
quite vague about this; specific guidelines would 
have been useful. Also helpful would have been an 
on-screen record of progress — or, at the very 
least, high scores a la Catchum for each letter 
group. Finally, it would have been nice to have 
instructions on how to expand HyperTyper's 
limited pool of sentences — something that 
undoubtedly can be done with a word processor. 

No computer program can get around the fact 
that it takes considerable practice to learn to 
touch type. Hyper Typer breaks this chore into 
manageable bites and provides frequent feedback 
that can encourage you to keep up the good work. 

Fall 1984 

The Boston Kugel 



Rocky Mountain Software Systems 

1280-C Newell Ave. f Walnut Creek, CA 94596; $249 

A software review by Alan Chapman 

NEWWORD is everything a word processi n g 
program used to be - and more. If you compare it 
to WordStar (its progenitor), it is clearly an 
improvement in most respects. Had NewWord hit 
the market 2 or 3 years ago, when WordStar was 
still the defacto standard for word processing on 
a micro, it might well have eclipsed it. But that 
was then and this is now. 

While NewWord adds a number of new wrinkles 
to WordStar, and does it in less disk space and 
generally faster, it also retains most of 
WordStar's faults. It is confusing to learn, 
cumbersome to operate, and it has a command 
structure that would be right at home in the 
Pentagon, where any resemblance between 
commands and logic is purely coincidental. 

As a text editor, NewWord, like WordStar, is 
far too slow and mechanical. You have to 
remember and execute an inordinate number of 
keystrokes to perform editing and formatting 
functions. Perfect Writer, which was of the same 
generation as WordStar, is still a much easier and 
more powerful editor, as are many of the newer 
word processors on the market. In the scheme of 
things, programs like Select were first generation 
micro-based word processors; WordStar and 
Perfect Writer were the second generation; and 
programs like Lex-11, MultiMate and Word Perfect 
are third generation. NewWord ranks as a 2.2 
generation program. 

As most Kaypro owners have WordStar, I'll 
focus on NewWord's differences. If I don't 
mention a feature, you can safely assume it's 
identical to WordStar. 


NewWord's Installation program (NWINSTAL) is 
menu-driven and far more extensive than 
WordStar, allowing you to change many more things 
to customize the program. It is painfully slow, 
but that may not matter, as you only use it once. 
An on-screen help menu for each item eliminates 
the need to search through the manual. 

It allows you, for example, to eliminate the 
automatic .BAK file (see Charlie Bowen's DUU 
article in this issue recounting how WordStar 
.BAK files can complicate life). However, if you 
do, you had better get in the habit of saving the 
file you're working on periodically so you won't 
lose it all if something weird happens. 

A note of caution: When you receive your 
program disk, you must telephone the NewWord 
people to "unlock" it. When you do, use PIP.COM 
to move files from the locked distribution disk to 
create an unlocked distribution disk and then to 

create your working disk. DISK, SWEEP and other 
utility programs put files in different locations^ 
on the new disk and may overwrite the CP/M trac T 
crashing the disk. 



* Ability to bury numerous different ruler 
lines in a document and have them change 
automatically as the cursor goes by them — no 
need to change rules back and forth in different 
sections of a document. 

* Ability to protect a document so it can't be 
edited or printed accidentally. 

* Scrolling by page. 

* An unerase feature. In WordStar, when you 
accidently delete a word or line, it's gone 
forever. With NewWord, it can be retrieved. The 
install program lets you set the maximum number 
of characters this delete buffer will save - the 
default value is 100 characters, enough to recover 
up to one line of text at a time. You can make 
this as large as you wish, but the unerase buffer 
you define is subtracted from available RAM - it 
becomes a "reserved buffer," limiting the size of 
document you can work on. 

* Up to three header or footer lines instead of 
one. Again, however, the number of header /footer 
lines you define becomes "reserved buffer" space 
and further limits your available RAM . 

* For those of you with daisy wheel printers^ 
NW gives you two phantom characters instead 
one in WS. A phantom character is an extict 
character which is on some daisy wheels, but not 
the keyboard. In order to print this character, 
you must customize your word processor so that 
the command you insert in the text file is 
translated into the appropriate hex code to your 
printer. The phantom character commands do this 
for specific hex codes. For example, most Diablo 
daisy wheels have a cents sign in hex code 20 
position, but it ain't on the Kaypro keyboard 

(believe me, I've looked). By typing the phantom 
character command (~PF) in your t€*xt, it will 
print out that position on the daisy wheel. 
NewWord's other phantom character command is 
~PG, and it prints the hex code 7F position. (But 
don't look for ~PG on any of NewWord's reference 
lists; it isn't there. It's buried in the 
encyclopedia; I stumbled across it by accident.) 

* Reads correct page length when you change 
page length in middle of document. WS prints it 
correctly but shows page breaks on screen based 
only on the dot commands you enter at beginning 
of document. 

* The Print menu allows you to print multiple 
copies of a file . 

* From the Main Menu, <ESC> automatically 
recalls the last file you worked on. This is a real 
time-saver. (If you're like me, you get flashes of 
sheer brilliance about three nanoseconds aft 
typing Ctrl-K D. In my impatience, I usua^ 
mistype the file name at least twice trying to 
recall it, by which time I've forgotten why I ever 


The Boston Kugel 



wanted it . ) For example , when you want to print 
a file you just edited, all you do is type <P> 
^SC>. Similarly, if you have closed a file and 
ouddenly remember something you want to add, 
recall the file by typing <D> <ESC>. 

* When you save a file while working on it, 
NewWord leaves the cursor at the place you were 
when you saved. WordStar returns you to the 
beginning of the file and makes you type three 
more keystrokes to return to your last location. 

* A built-in mail merge program, eliminating 
the need (and cost) of a separate program. 

* NW takes about 30K less disk space, which on 
a Kaypro 2 allows you to keep a number of useful 
utilities on your program disk which otherwise 
would require a disk change. 


* Although NewWord brings some distinct 
improvements in editing power, it still lacks many 
of the basic editing features I look for, i.e., 
ability to move/delete text by sentence and 
paragraph, ability to delete a word to the left of 
cursor (backwards) . The processes for 
deleting/moving a block of text and find & replace 
are excessively complicated. 

* It doesn't keep up with the speed of a 
moderate typist. I found NW can handle just so 
many keystrokes at a time, then it stops for a 

^econd while i t (there, it just happened!) 
npties its buffer to the screen. I have to stop 
cind wait for it and usually go back and retype the 
few keystrokes it missed. Annoying, particularly 
when the creative juices are really flowing. How 
fast is moderate? When I'm really rolling, I type 
40-50 mistakes, er, words a minute, which is not 
superfast. A good typist would really go bananas 
with this problem. 

* NewWord does not have the Column Move 
feature of WordStar, hence you can't block and 
move vertical columns, a feature I use often. 

* NewWord ties up your system while printing. 
WordStar has a background mode that allows you to 
edit another file while printing the first one. 
NewWord does not, and if your printer is slow, it 
ran be very annoying. 

* When scrolling up or down by screen, NW 
positions the cursor at the midpoint of the 
screen, instead of in its last position before 
scrolling, like WordStar. I often scroll down a 
screen (to read what I have just written) and 
then back up to the screen I just left to continue 
writing, and I like the idea of the cursor going 
back to its original position so I can continue 
writing immediately. Admittedly, this is a minor 
annoyance, but us creative types are very 
sensitive . 



NewWord' s documentation deserves comment - 
mostly bad. They have incorporated three 
comprehensive manuals - A "Do It Yourself 

Tutorial," a "Nuts & Bolts Customization Guide" 
and a "NewWord Encyclopedia Reference Manual" - 
into one book-bound manual. While the language in ! 
the manuals is reasonably literate - a conscious 
effort has been made to write in English - the 
book is too long, unclear in places, and confusing 
at some points. However, if you look hard 
enough, you can find anything you want to know 
about NewWord in it - eventually. 

The design, layout, printing and packaging 
totally disregard how the reader needs to use the 
book. For example, each "manual" contains 
differing levels of detail about the same features, 
and it is necessary to skip back and forth to get a 
complete story. Because it is book-bound, it 
won't lie flat or stay on a specific page if you 
prop it up, which makes it difficult to use as a 
reference guide. The print is small, gray and 
hard to read; flowcharts, illustrations and 
examples are skimpy and not well thought out. 
There is no single index; to find information on a 
subject it is necessary to go into each manual 
separately. The "Do It Yourself" and 
"Encyclopedia" manuals have indexes (which are not 
as complete as they should be - try looking up 
"Phantom characters," for example), "Nuts & Bolt" 
does not. 

The only logic I can see for publishing the 
manuals in this fashion is to discourage would-be 
pirates from photocopying it. In this they 
succeed - at great sacrifice to its usefulness. 


On balance, if you like WordStar, you'll like 
NewWord even better. If you're planning to buy 
WordStar, buy NewWord instead - you'll get more 
program for less money. If, like most Kaypro 
owners, you already have WordStar, it is 
questionable whether the investment in NewWord 
($249) is worthwhile. There was a trade-in offer 
available for a while whereby you could get 
NewWord for $100 and your old word processor 
master disk. If it's still open - and you don't 
have a mail merge program - it's a reasonable 

STYLE (Continued from p. 14) 

really want to be letter jperfecc. Either program 
is available mail order at under $100. 

While both are good at what they do, I like 
Grammatik best; it's easier to use and offers more 
flexibility. Besides, I've always wanted to write 

Author's Note: The October issue of Personal 
Computing has an excellent in-depth article by 
BOSKUG's Peter Bates on a number of the newer 
writing aid programs in addition to P&S and 
Grammatik. (Peter even had the impeccable taste 
to quote me in the article.) 

Fall 1384 

The Boston Kugel 



936 Hermosa Ave. 

Hermosa Beach, CA 90254; $125 

A software review by Mike Drooker 

GRAFIKS is a menu-driven program which allows 
you to create, edit, store, superpose, and print 
three different kinds of 2-dimensional graphics 
using your KAYPRO (or other) computer and one of 
the following dot matrix printers: EPSON MX or FX 
with GRAFTRAX; GEMINI "X" series; APPLE 
IMAGEWRITER, NEC 8023 or C.ITOH 8510A and 
and PRISM 132. You may create bar charts, pie 
charts, or line graphs (line graphs may also be 
printed without the points connected, producing 
scatter plots) . 

Data for the graphs may be entered from the 
keyboard or may be created by other programs such 
FILER, PERSONAL PEARL, and others which can 
produce data files to GRAFIKS specifications. 

For this review, GRAFIKS 2.4 was tested using 
an "old" KAYPRO II driving an EPSON MX-80 
printer. Three graphic data entry methods were 
tested: keyboard input, PERFECT CALC spreadsheet 
output, and MBASIC programs. 

GRAFIKS installs itself to your system with 
two menu selections. The first, in an initially 
run INITERM.COM file, identifies your terminal to 
the program (i.e. "old" KAYPRO 2 or 4, "new" 
KAYPRO 2,4, or 10 etc.). The second, a printer 
selection option in the main program menu, allows 
you to specify (and easily change) the printer for 
which a graph is being created. 

Graphs are manipulated by choosing mnemonic 
selections from the main menu (C to create, E to 
edit, D to delete..., etc.). Depending on your 
choice, you will be presented with additional 
menus and/or data entry screens. Moving through 
the menus is made easy by the use of the up and 
down arrow keys which move the cursor through 
each menu and between menus, too. 

There are three graph sizes available for 80 
column printers: half page at top, half page at 
bottom, and whole page. Wide carriage printers 
are also allowed 110 column graphs in the same 
three locations. 

The Bar graph menu lets you select the number 
of bars (up to 52), the number of variables per 
bar (up to 6) and the number of bars to be 
clustered together (if you want to cluster your 
bars) . You also select scale bounds and the type 
of scale marks (i.e. grid, tick marks on axes, 
months) . The program selects the bar shading 
scheme automatically, to differentiate bars in 
clusters and multiple stacked variables in the 
same bar. 

In addition to scale and axis options, the Line 

graph menu allows selection of a single-valued 
formula (like a BASIC statement) or data points^ 
(up to 200) for plotting. The formula opti' 
might be useful for building up a graph from a se^ 
of mathematically defined overlays. Data point 
plotting permits closed figures and 
non-single-valued functions to be plotted. 

The Pie chart menu lets you select from two to 
20 pieces of pie. Although not explicitly stated 
in the manual, the pie chart generator sums the 
values associated with each piece of pie and then 
divides the pie in proportion to the sum. Pie size 
and placement are selected with the program 
computing location limits for you as you vary the 
pie size. If you follow the prompting screen, the 
pie will land on the paper every time. 

Once the graphic input data is entered, the 
program processes the data to make a graph plot 
file. This processing time varies depending on 
what kind of a graph you have developed. For 
example, with the 2.5 MHz (standard) clock speed 
of the "old" KAYPRO, a six bar, two variable per 
bar, chart took 1.5 minutes to process, a 5 point 
line graph took 50 seconds to process, and a six 
slice pie took almost three minutes. When 
processing is complete, you are presented with 
the main menu. 

Having processed your graph, you have several 
options on the main menu in addition to printing. 
You may choose to (V) view your graph on the 
video display. Since the KAYPRO II (and some 
other machines running GRAFIKS) have no gr^l" ~" 
or low-resolution graphic capability, GRAFIK^ 
provides a compressed, low-resolution facsimile of 
your processed graph. On the "old" KAYPRO II 
this is done with asterisks. Needless to say, this 
can produce a high degree of abstraction from a 
detailed grc£>h. (A plot of sin(x~2) fills the right 
half of the screen with **********.) However, for 
less dense plots, this feature provides a quick and 
dirty check of the graph and lets you know if you 
have blown it without waiting to do a print-out. 

You may choose to (D) delete the graph. Since 
GRAFIKS generates three files on your data disk 
for each graph, the delete command erases all 
three with a single menu selection. 

Selecting the (E) edit option, lets you enter 
legends on your graph. In this mode you are 
presented with an expanded low-resolution view of 
the graph on the monitor onto which you type 
legends, title blocks, and other alphanumerical or 
graphical information. The edit mode has a 
graphic sub-mode which permits shading to be 
selected and lines, arrows, highlighting, and 
other graphic enhancements to be added to the 
graph. These are coded as keyboard characters 
per a translation table given in the manual and are 
differentiated from alphanumeric legends by the 
blinking character attribute on screen. (Beware, 
the blinking attribute is lost if you move the 
cursor through a blinking field, so keep your wi "^ 
about you in graphic sub-mode.) The edit mode 
designed to resemble the WORDSTAR editor so old 
WORDSTAR hands will be on familiar ground. At 


The Boston Kugel 

Fall 1984 

the completion of the editing session, if you 
elect to save the editorial changes you have made, 
^-^ey are incorporated into the graphic plot file. 

When you (P) print the graph, the graphic 
information and the edited information are printed 
on your dot-matrix printer. Rectangular designs 
come out well. Curves and sloped lines will be 
approximated by the discrete placement of dots 
and the degree of approximation will be 
determined by the resolution of the printer. 
(This is the case for ANY dot-matrix plotting 

I measured some pie charts to determine x-y 
eccentricity and found four percent stretch on 
the vertical axis. This is hardly noticeable, 
especially if you explode (move out from center) 
some of the pieces of the pie. I did find serious 
(23 percent) vertical distortion in the line graph 
mode, and have passed that finding to ROBONICS 
for resolution. It may pertain to the EPSON 
printer driver only. I will follow up this report 
when I have some feedback from ROBONICS on this 

Additional main menu selections permit you to 
overlay graphs (This can be done over and over 
again to build a final plot from pre-constructed 
primitives.) save the (T) text only from a graph, 
(R) read in a set of previously entered graph 
definition data or (G) get a set of default data. 
These features permit rapid and/or incremental 
specifications changes, making it easy to create 
^^w graphs using desirable portions of old 
_ .aphs. 

The GRAFIKS manual contains instructions for 
constructing compatible input files using a 
programming language (like BASIC), an ASCII file 
generator (like WORDSTAR or dBASE II), or a 
spreadsheet. I have followed these instructions 
to generate graph input files using MBASIC and 
PERFECT CALC. What is required is to generate a 
file with the proper delimiters and control codes 
which can be interpreted by the GRAFIKS input 
file processor in the same way that keyboard entry 
data is interpreted. The instructions were 
clearly written and sufficient to do the job. 

GRAFIKS 2.4 comes with a 70 page manual which 
includes table of contents, index, and reference 
sections. About half of the manual is devoted to 
"A walk through GRAFIKS," a worthwhile 
step-by-step introduction to the program and its 
features. The manual is "plain vanilla," not 
embellished with cute cartoons or David Lien 
humor and appears to have been typeset on a word 

You will note some differences between 
statements in the manual and what appears on the 
screen. In such cases, be guided by the screen 
and not the manual. Examples of these 
discrepancies include: lettered menu items 
instead of numbered items, additional menu 
motions on screen, and an erroneous list of 
ogram files. The reason for this is that the 
copy deadline for the manual preceded the closing 
date for program changes. Until an errata or 

manual correction is made, the user may be guided 
by the self explanatory menus presented on the 
screen. When I disregarded a prompting message 
on one of the menus, I found a missin g error trap 
and encountered a run-time error. If I had 
followed the clear directions on the screen, this 
would not have happened. (ROBONICS has been 
advised.) It would be possible, using a little 
gamespersonship, to learn GRAFIKS without the 
manual, just by trying different items on the 
menu (the BASKIN-ROBINS school of applications 
programming). Using the manual takes less time, 
especially if you are not fluent in WORDSTAR and 
do not want to construct an entire keyboard worth 
of graphic primitive translation table by trial and 

In summary, the program is useful and it 
works. The menus which control the program are 
easy to use. The manual is plain, straightforward 
and helpful. My major reservation about the 
program is the distortion of line graph results 
(and I am unable to determine if this is general or 
limited to certain supported printers) . This is a 
serious problem for users who must have control 
over vertical and horizontal scaling of line 
drawings. A lesser criticism is that the manual is 
not quite up to date with the latest version of 
the program. 





□ Authorized Sales/Service on... 


d In and Out of Warranty Depot Repair 

o OEM Add-On Kits, Ordered and Installed 
a Cables Made According to Specifications 
d Maintenance Contracts 





5 Henshaw St 
Brighton, MA 02135 

Fall 1984 

The Boston Kugel 





by Sarah Wernick 

Attention modem users and others who make 
many out-of-town phone calls. If you're still 
using AT&T for long distance calls and your 
monthly bill is over $20, you might benefit from 

switching to a long distance service. They're 
simple to join (a phone call will suffice) and 
simple to use. To call long-distance on one of the 
services, you first dial a local access number and 
wait for a tone; then you dial in the number 
you're calling and a six or seven digit billing 
code. You'll need a touch- tone phone (or some 
other device capable of making the same noises) 
for the part of the call that comes after the 
tone. But in many cases, the savings on your 
phone bill will pay for a new phone in just a few 

You'll have to do a bit of research to discover 
which of the growing number of long distance 
services is best for you: it will depend on your 
volume of calls; their destination, duration and 
time of day; and whether or not you need such 
special services as calling privileges on the 
road. Ignore advertising claims like "Save 50%." 
Often they are exaggerated by such tactics as 
failing to take monthly charges into account. 

Your spread sheet program can help you make a 
rational decision. Haul out 3 to 6 old phone 
bills , then see how much the same calls would have 
cost you on the various systems you're 
considering. Don't forget to include any monthly 
charges or minimums. 

The service I'm using, Skyline, is particularly 
good for relatively low volume callers who make 
most of their calls to adjacent states. There's a 
$15 monthly minimum, but no monthly fee. The 
per-call charges depend upon whether or not the 
call is made to an adjacent state. If the 
destination is an adjacent state, the charges are 
$.25/$. 13/$. 10 per minute for calls made 
days/weekday evenings/weekends and after 11 p.m. 
respectively. Though they don't advertise the 
fact, these same rates apply to the 413 area code 
in Massachusetts. The rates to other states are 
$.39/$. 18/$. 14, which may be higher than those of 
other services, especially if your calls are to the 
east coast or midwest. 

One other potential disadvantage of Skyline is 

that calls can't be made from other cities without 

paying a one-time-only per-city charge; with some 

other long-distance carriers this service is free. 

I've been pleased with the sound quality of my 

calls on Skyline, and also with the fact that the 

access number is just about never busy. The 

service I used previously, ITT, also had good 

sound, but their access number was often hard to 

get, particularly just after 11 p.m. when the 

lower night rate goes into effect. A recent 

Consumer Report survey of long distance carriers 

also gave Skyline high marks. 

Normally, there is a $16 charge to sign up for 

Skyline. However, if you place the order through 
me (or any other subscriber you know), your ff^> 
is waived — and the signer-upper gets a sma 
gift! Call if you're interested. Sarah Wernick 
(738-5820) . 

Procedure Update 

by Michael S. Drooker 

[Editor's note: The following updates information 
on foreign travel with a (trans) portable computer 
that appeared in the May- June 1984 "KUGEL."] 

First the good news: The U.S. Department of 
Commerce (DOC) , International Trade 

Administration (ITA) , Office of Export 
Administration (OEA) are proud to announce that 
the Exporter's Service Staff (ESS) has been 

Now the bad news: In order to serve you 
better, the Exporter Service Division (ESD) has 
been formed. Not only that (it's an ill wind that 
blows no good), but they have more than one 
telephone. So, if you need regulations and policy 
information, call 202-377-4811. If you want to 
find out the status of a license application that 
has been in the mill for 30 days or more, c 
202-377-2752. If you have a licensing emergency, 
call 202-377-2793 or 202-377-2799. (They must be 
planning on lots of emergencies.) Call 
202-377-2574 to get publications and 202-377-3856 
to find out about seminars. 

Humor aside, the numbers are real, and it 
sounds as if the folks that handle all of this 
paperwork are getting some additional help. That 
is good. To quote from the official announcement, 
"We're as close as the phone - so call us now if 
you need export control information and 
assistance." With a hot subject like export of 
domestic technology, it is good to know who to 
call to find out how the latest doctrine affects 

With any luck, most of this will be unnecessary 
in your case. Recent travellers have told me that 
they have been advised by DOC, ITC, OEA, ESS 
and/or ESD representatives that their travel with 
computer was deemed covered under the general 
license category "BAGGAGE." This is good news. 
It means that they did not have to submit a 
license application. To comply with the rules 
under the general license, only a 7525-V, 
Shipper's Export Declaration, is required to be 
filled out. To do this you require some help from 
tjie DOC OEA to tell you the proper numbers and 
codes to f-m some of the columns. That's not too 
tough. For the moment (it seems) it's no big d "^ 
to stay legitimate. 


The Boston Kugel 

Fall 1984 

C DitbCtOrS tfote (Continued from p. 1) 




The time has come when everyone will have to 
join BCS in order to be a BOSKUG member. Sorry , 
but that's part of the deal with BCS, which pays 
our b ills . We still show a number of people on our 
mailing lis t who are not on theirs. Most of them 
are people who joined BOSKUG in the early days, 
before we got together with the BCS. Some are 
actual BCS members who for some reason never 
specified Kaypro when asked which groups they 
wished to belong to. 

Look at your mailing label. If it has a big "R" 
(Renew) on it, then it's time to make sure you're 
a BCS member or else say goodbye to The Kugel . 
This is your last issue. 

Of course, if you live so far out of town that 
you can't come to meetings but want the 
newsletter, we'll send you a sub for $10 a year. 
But it won't happen unless you get in touch with 
us. Call Diane Bushee (617) 787-1824. 


Costs are rising all over the place. In the 
past, we've been able to be extremely generous 
with our software library policy, charging only 
one disk for the privilege of copying as many as 
you want. We've been forced to modify this 
slightly. From now on: 

- First disk copied: still costs you one blank, 
unformatted disk. 

- Each additional disk: costs you $1.00. 

We think this is still a pretty good. deal. The 
extra revenues will go toward more disks in the 

library and additions to the hardcopy library, 
among other things. 


We now have a copy of Kaypro 's technical 
manual for all its machines in the hardcopy 
library. Also relatively new: the Kaypro Software 
Directory, a telephone book-sized listing of 
proprietary software that runs on Kaypros, 
indexed by subject and title. A recently 
published addendum (September, 1984) is also on 
file. These books may not circulate. 

We now get both MicroCornucopia and KIPS 
newsletters, also in the library. Member 
discounts listed therein are applicable to all 
BOSKUG members. 

YAK (Yet Another Kaypro ) : 

The Kaypro 16, that long-heralded, 
much-rumored and oft-delayed 16-bit, MS-DOS, IBM 
compatible from Solana Beach, is finally on the 
verge of appearing. We say "on the verge" because 
we still haven't seen it. But the Kaypro 
delegation here from California for the recent 
Computer Faire show was waiting anxiously each 
day for one to show up at their hotel. The 
tentative plan was to introduce the machine at 

Comdex later this month. Here's all the rather 
sketchy information we have on it at the present 


A 10 megabyte hard-disk machine with one 
floppy drive; full graphics capability; 256K of RAM 
expandable to 640K on the board; one expansion 
slot; one color IGB out (whatever that is). The 
machine's biggest selling point is said to be its 
ability to run virtually any software that runs on 
the IBM PC, including FRAMEWORK, LOTUS 1-2-3 
and FLIGHT CONTROLLER. "More IBM-compatible 
than the Compaq" is what the Kaypro flaks have 
been saying. 

As far as we know, the machine does not have a 
co-processor and will not run 8-bit CP/M 
software. It is possible that it will run 16-bit 
CP/M (CPM-86) with the addition of an expansion 
board. We'll find out shortly. 

But don't expect any design breakthroughs. 
The machine may be new but it still comes in the 
old Kaypro box. Price is $3300. 


Almost from BOSKUG' s inception, we have 
offered an early-bird tutorial once a month to 
introduce newcomers to the computer culture, to 
their machines and to the software that comes 
bundled with them. For many months, this session 
was run once a month for 45 minutes by Mike Weiss 
of Kaypro. 

Recently, Mike has been unable to continue, 
and we have had to drop these valuable tutorials 
for lack of someone to replace him. We would like 
to reinstate them. The need is great and 

If you would be willing to lead people through 
the computer ABCs once a month (2nd monthly 
meeting, 6:30-7:15 PM), please give me a call or 
see me at a meeting. Ideally, we should have at 
least two members doing the beginner's tutorial 
alternately. In addition to having a basic 
knowledge of CP/M, you should at least know 
WordStar well enough to get others started. 

No current Kaypro owner is so long in the 
tooth that he can't remember the agonies he 
endured during his first few weeks of ownership, 
days when everything seemed strange and nothing 
worked. The experience of guiding others over 
these same diEficulties can be very satisfying. 
BOSKUG was founded on the principle of people 
helping each other. Please, let's have some 


The latest edition (Fall, 1984) of the BOSKUG 
phone book is now off the press (the Xerox 
machine, actually). It lists all members 
alphabetically and also by city, as a service to 
those who need rides to meetings. Just call up a 
member who lives nearby and ask him if he's 
driving . (Or her/she . ) 

The phone book will be published four times 
each year. Get it from Diane at a meeting, or 
call her at 787-1824 and she'll probably send you 
one. Cost is $1.00, plus mailing. 

Fall 1984 

The Boston Kugel 




Create graphics masterpieces with. . . 


Complete Business Graphics Toolkit 

NEED GRAPHICS? You don't need a new computer. You need REMBRANDT. The software 
package that unleashes all the graphics power built into your Kaypro Computer. 

Until now, accessing Kaypro graphics required advanced programming efforts. Now the 
REMBRANDT Business Graphics Toolkit gives you three easy-to-use tools that allow even the 

most inexperienced user to quickly master Kaypro graphics. 

KGRAPH™ enables quick and easy creation of business KBOARD™ is the full-screen graphics editor for your 

graphics including horizontal and vertical bar charts, pie Kaypro computer. Create graphic screens, save and recall 

them to and from disk. Layout forms, design logos, draw 
pictures. It's easy and fun to use' 

charts and xy plots (scatter-graphs) — KGRAPH uses hand 
entered data or reads numerical data from just about any 
source including dBase II, spreadsheet, Mbasic and 
Wordstar files. 

KBRIEF 1 * produces electronic on-screen "slide shows" with absolutely 
no programming requiredl KGRAPH and KBOARD files are 
easily sequenced using nine special effects! 

is complete with printer routines so graphics can be reproduced on virtually every 

dot-matrix or daisy-wheel printer. 

REMBRANDT, the Complete Business Graphics Toolkit costs just $79.95. 

A demonstration disk is just $5.00 applicable to the purchase price. 

See your Kaypro dealer for a demonstration. 

For Kaypro 2-84, 2X, 4-84, 4E, 4X, 10, 12X and Roble. 

e your KAYPRO computer IBM-PC compat 

for $29.95! 

READ, WRITE and FORMAT mere than 25 different 
types of disks (including IBM PC-DOS/MS-DOS) with 

Are you tired of trying to find your favorite software package in Kaypro format? Would you like to use your 
Kaypro generated Wordstar files, dBase II data and spreadsheet files on the IBM-PC at work (and vice-versa)? 

Do you want to trade public domain software with a friend who owns an Osborne? 
MEDIA MASTER gives your Kaypro instant access to program and data files in over 25 disk formats including: 

Osborne SD & DD 
IBM PC-DOS 1.0 & up 
IBM PC-DOS 2.0 & up 
IBM CP/M-86 
Morrow MD2 
Systel II 


TRS-80 with Omikron CP/M 

TRS-80 III w/Memory Merchant 

TRS-80 IV with CP/M+ 

Heath Z100 

Heath w/Magnolia CP/M 

i available for Kaypro 2 (a 

Cromemco w/lnt'l Term 

Cromemco CDOS SSDD 

Cromemco CDOS SSSD 

Tl Professional CP/M-86 


Lobo Max-80 

Xerox 820 I SD 
Xerox 820 II DD 
Zenith Z90 
NEC PC-8001A 
Kaypro II 




Include S3 per order for postage/handling. Overseas airmail add $10. 
California residents add 6% tax (LA County, add 6.5%). 
To place COD or credit card orders. 

Call TOLL FREE 24 hours: 800-824-7888 (Ask for Operator 407) 

Alaska, Hawaii: 800-824-7919 (Ask for Operator 407) 

Technical questions, call (818) 716-1655 

For more Information, a free brochure (including sample printouts and reviews), or to order, contact: 

23145 Big ler Street 
Woodland Hills, CA 91364 

Fall 1984 

All programs also available for OSBORNE and DEC RAINBOW computers. Dealer inquiries invited. 
The Boston Kugel _ __ ____ 



BOSKUG meets at the Minuteman Regional 
Vocational Technical School, Rte 2A, Lexington , 
just west of Rte. 128. Follow signs to I.R.C. 

LIBRARY opens at 6:30 p.m. MEETINGS begin 
7:15. PROGRAMS start at 8:00 sharp. 

Nov. 13 

Nov. 27 

Dec. 11 


A presentation by several KUG mem- 
bers on how they use their machines 
in their daily work. 



A review of various games that run 
on the Kaypro. Speakers: Seth Holmes 
and others. 

Dec. 25 : No meeting scheduled. 


A presentation of several hardware 

Jan. 22 : SIGs 

Feb. 5 

Feb. 19 
Mar. 12 

Speakers: Charlie Bowman & Lee 


A presentation by the BOSKUG 
Software Evaluation Group. 

Mar. 26 : SIGs 





DIRECTORS : Lee Lockwood 965-6343^ 

Bob Waters 894-533 

SECRETARY: Diane Bushee 787-1824 


(Software) Charlie Bowen 332-2931 

(Paper) George Fischer 774-4307 

PROGRAMS: Suresh Shenoy 862-5173 

S.I.G.S: John Callahan 653-9329 


EVALUATION: Bob Harlow 776-9447 

NEWSLETTER: Karen Rockow 354-0124 


Software (619) 481-3920 

Hardware (619) 481-3424 

PERFECT SOFTWARE: (800) 222-4222 

Technical Support (415) 524-1296 

B.C.S. INFO LINE 227-0170 


jTOm the editor. . . (Continued from p. 2) 

copy. They should be unformatted , unhyphenated 
and unjustified. The current issue's authors 
suffered a collective attack of longwindedness. 
Have a heart; your editor thinks it is impolite to 
edit extensively. Suggested length for articles is 
1,000 words (about two columns). Reviews ^^f 
single books and software should be kept arc 1 
500 words. With your review , it is imperative 
that you include the following information: title, 
author, publisher or manufacturer, address, 
price. For books, we also need the number of 
pages, date of publication and prices for both 
hardcover and pb editions. 


OO Computer Society 

One Center Plaza 


PERMIT 1138 

Boston, Massachusetts 02108 

u-ka 9168 NO 



09-8 5 

MA 2 7 4 


The Boston Kugel